Beam Design Settings

Beam Design Settings

You can display the “Setting and Parameters” form in the “Beam Section Design and Detailing” module.

Most of the parameters defined in this section are stored separately for floor beams, rib beams and foundation beams.

Beam

Design

Basic design settings are controlled on this page.


Design Shear Force Control

Based on the selection made here, design shear force may be calculated at “Column Face” or at a “d” distance from column face. Here, “d” is the effective depth of the beam.

Section Effective Depth Calculation

Effective depth of beam section will be calculated using one of the methods provided in this field.
When “Centre of Gravity of Steel Bars” field is checked, the section effective depth will be determined based on the centre of gravity of the tension bars. In this method, the contribution of each tension bar in the section will be considered separately.
Alternatively, a more conservative method, "Centre of Gravity of Layers" field may be checked. The calculation of section effective depth is based on the average of the distances of the steel bar layers.

Design Using Rectangular Section

Consideration of flanges during reinforced concrete design of beam section especially in span regions may yield more economical results. You may check this option to ignore the effect of flanges and use rectangular beam section in all design calculations.

Ignorable Forces

Ignorable force values during the design process of the beams in the structure will be entered into these fields. If smaller internal forces are obtained with respect to these values, then these forces will be ignored by the program.  Please refer to this article for more details : Ignorable Force in Beam Design

Span Top Edge Moment 

There are two options for in Span Top Edge Moment, which are "Use Max. Moment at Mid-span " or "Use Max. Moment in Middle L/2 Region ". User can choose maximum value for moment is determined at Mid-span or in Middle L/2 Region.

Parameters

This page is used to set limits on the ranges and spacings of bars used in the design of floor beams, ribbed beams and foundation beams.


Min. Beam Steel Diameter

You can set the minimum allowable (or desirable) steel bar size using this input field. A smaller bar size will not be used during steel bar selection.
Note that, if you modify this section, you have to re-select the steel bars to reflect the changes.

Max. Beam Steel Diameter

You can set the maximum allowable (or desirable) steel bar size using this input field. A bigger bar size will not be used during steel bar selection.

Min. Number of Hanger Bars

Minimum number of hanger bars can be defined in this field. Note that, hanger bars will be used only in the steel patterns that make use of this bar group.

Min. Hanger Bar Diameter

Minimum diameter of hanger bars can be defined in this field. Note that, hanger bars will be used only in the steel patterns that make use of this bar group.

Minimum Top and Bottom Steel Spacing

You can set the minimum desirable steel bar spacing using this input field.
The value entered in this field must be equal or greater than the minimum allowable spacing value specified in the active reinforcement code. If you use a bigger value than the minimum requirements of the codes, the code values may still be used by the program whenever necessary.

Maximum Tension and Compression Steel Spacing

You can set the maximum desirable steel bar spacing using this input field. Maximum steel spacing can be provided separately for tension and compression bars.

Steel Bar Spacing Step

Spacing values will be incremented by the amount specified in this field during iterations.

Steel Bar Cut Length

You can enter the cut lengths of the steel bars used in this section. The length of the bars will then be checked against this value.

Web Steel (Side Bars) Diameter

Minimum diameter that will be used for the side bars can be defined in this field.

You can set the minimum and maximum allowable (or desirable) link bar size using this input field. A smaller bar size will not be used during the selection of links.
Note that, if you modify this section, you have to re-design to reflect the changes.

You can set the minimum desirable link spacing using this input field.

Link spacings will be calculated to be the multiples of the value provided in this field. For example, if "25 mm" is provided here, link spacing values will be like 150, 175, 200, 225 etc.
Link spacing will be modified by the amount provided here in the "Reinforcement Information" of the "Beam Editor", every time the spin buttons controlling the spacing of links pressed.




Steel Bar Selection

Method

This page is used to apply more specific controls on the bar selection process.



Display Steel Bar Spacing During Design

If this option is checked, "Beam Editor " will display "s-Bar " (the clear spacing between the bars) instead of "Min-bw " (minimum beam width that the bars will fit with minimum allowable clear spacing) during bar selection.

Steel Bar Area Tolerance

In some cases, you may want to use less steel than required in the beam sections. By introducing a percent “positive” tolerance in this field, you make the program to put less steel than required. Likewise, negative percent tolerance values will yield greater steel areas than required.

Minimum Top Steel at a Pin

If hinge mechanism is defined at the beam ends, then you can enter the area of the top steel at support regions as the percent of the steel area used in span region.

Design

This page is used to apply specific controls to the bar pattern applied.



Reinforcement Pattern

You can select the default reinforcement pattern to be used for curtailment of bars using the list provided in this section.

The reinforcement pattern in Prota Structure is derived from the publication Standard Method of Detailing Concrete published by Institution of Structural Engineer (UK, August 1999). 
According to the publication, section on beam detailing (cl. 5.4.20), two basic methods of detailing are introduced:
  1. The Splice Bar Method – A pattern aimed at prefabrication of cages and minimization of in situ steel fixing.
  2. The Alternative Method – A pattern more suited to in situ steel fixing.
Reinforcement Pattern No.1 & No.2 adopted in program are based on the suggestions. 

Reinforcement Pattern No. 1: The Splice Bar Method


The main attribute of this pattern is that top and bottom bars all stop at each side of supports and then splice bars (e.g. span bars) are used to maintain the required continuity through the support.
As the objective of using this pattern is to create beam details such that discrete reinforcing cages for each beam can be constructed, therefore the merging option will be switched off. 
As example, if this option is used the bottom rebar will not merged even, they have similar reinforcement bars. 

Reinforcement Pattern No.2: The Alternative Method 


It can be observed that the top bars are same Pattern No.2 and Pattern No.1. The different between these two patterns are in bottom bars. 
In Pattern No.2, bottom bars are allowed to run through the support and lap directly with the bars in the adjacent span. 
As this pattern is not intended to lend itself to prefabrication, therefore the merging option will switch on. 
Note: Merge option can be switch ON/OFF for top bars but not for bottom bars. Bottom span bars will extend to end support. 

Reinforcement Pattern No.3: The Alternative Method 


The bottom bars will same as Pattern No.2 but the top bars are different which the hanger bars are used which can run through several spans. 
These hanger bars provide any required span moment resistance. Additional top reinforcement is then added in as necessary through the supports.

Layer Steel Settings

  1. Use At Least 2 Bars in 2nd Layer

If this option is checked, a minimum of 2 bars will be placed to 2nd layer (if 2nd layer steel is necessary).
  1. Use Same Bar Size in 1st and 2nd Layer
If this option is checked, the same bar size used in the 1st layer will be used in the 2nd layer steel.
  1. Use Same Number of Bars in 1st and 2nd Layer
If this option is checked, the same number of bars will be  used in the 1st and 2nd layer.

Usage of 2nd Span Bottom Bars

  1. Use 2nd Bottom Bars for 70% As
"2nd Bottom Bars " group may be set to be used automatically for (maximum) the 70% of the required steel just not to extend all bars along the full length of the span.
If this option is selected, the "2nd Bottom Bars " group will be utilised for maximum 70% of the required steel in interior spans and 50% for exterior spans.

Usage of Support 2nd Top Bars

Two support top bar groups are provided in patterns without bent up bars. "2nd Top Support Bars" are used for either 2nd steel layer or curtailed shorter for economy.
  1. Use for 40% As
If you want to use the "2nd Top Support Bars" group for maximum 40% of the total required steel area, you can check this field.

Bent-up Bars

This page is used to apply specific controls to the Bent-up Bars.




Beam Type

In this field, users can choose beam type as:
  1. Floor Beams
  2. Ribbed Beams
  3. Foundation Beams

Bent-up Bar Control Acc. to Beam Span

Using the four data fields in this section, users can control the distance of bent-up bar control, number of bent-up bars, bent-up bar minimum middle length and also bent-up bar angle.
Besides, this field also requires users to input the value of double bars minimum length and triple bars minimum length.

This page is used to apply specific controls to the Links.


Using the two data fields in this section you can control the number of links in a beam section with respect to the width of the beam, "bw ".

"Max.bw For Single Links " field determines limit beam width that single links can be used. When the beam width, bw, is bigger than this value and less than (or equal to) the value defined in

"Max.bw For Double Links " field, then two links will be used in the section.

When the beam width is bigger than the value defined in "Max.bw For Double Links " field, then three links will be used.
In addition the “Link Type ” option enables you to choose between having a single outer link with additional inner links or equally sized links.

The type of rib links can be defined using “Link Type” field in the “Rib Links ” section. The available options are illustrated below.

Rib Link Types and Parameters

If “Closed” or “Open” links are selected for rib links, length of the extension can be defined using “Link Extension” field in the “Rib Links” section

If you want to have different link arrangements for supports then this option must be checked. Otherwise, same link size and spacing will be used in span and supports calculated based on the maximum design shear force.
  1. Same bar size at supports and span
If different link arrangement option is checked for having different links at supports, you can check this option to use same bar size in supports and span regions. If this option is not checked, different bars may be used whenever necessary in supports and span region of the beam.
  1. Select Symmetrical Links at Supports
If different link arrangement option is checked for having different links at supports, you can check this option to use same link arrangement (bar size and spacing) in both supports. If this option is not checked, different bars arrangements may be used whenever necessary in left and right support regions of the beam.
  1. Fixed Support Region Width (2h)
If this option is not checked, the width of the support region where different link arrangements are used is calculated for left and right support regions. These values are displayed in the “x-Sup.Links” section of the Interactive Beam Reinforcement Design Editor.
Width of the support regions will be set as “2h” when this option is checked.


Beam Links Parameters

Min. Support Region Width

Width of the support regions may be limited so that they will not be less than a certain value. You can use this option to use a minimum support region of either “0.25L” or “2h” where “L” is the clear span and “h” is the overall section height of the beam.

Min. Span Region Width Options:

This option is useful when the support region widths are calculated to be almost equal to half beam span. In such cases, you can select a minimum value that when the span region is to be checked. When span region is less than the minimum set value here then support links are extended over the span region.

Curtailment

Steel Bars

These settings affect how the reinforcement is curtailed.


Bottom Span Bars

  1. Lap Bars Inside Support
If you prefer to lap the bottom bars in the middle of the support region you may select this option.
  1. Lap Bars Outside Support
If you prefer to lap the bottom bars to the right or left of the support region you may select this option. The bars will be lapped at the side of the support where the bottom bars are smaller. If the bottom bar sizes are the same in both adjacent spans, then they will be lapped to the right of the support region.
  1. Extend Lap into the Support
If you prefer to extend the bottom bars into the support region by a lap distance after the inner face of the support, you may select this option.
  1. Extend by Lap into Adjacent Span
If you wish to extend the bottom bars through the support region and extend them by a lap distance after the outer face of the support, you may select this option. This option is used generally in earthquake regions to provide more anchorage for the bottom bars.
  1. Merge Similar Bottom Span Bars
You can set this option if you want to merge similar bottom steel bars. For bars to be assumed as similar, both quantities and bar sizes must be equal. Merging may be restricted due to geometric constraints and may not be successful in all positions.
  1. Merge Similar Web Bars
You can set this option if you want to merge similar web bars. In order that bars to be assumed as similar, both quantities and bar sizes must be equal. Merging may be restricted due to geometric constraints and may not be successful in all positions.

Additional Support Bars

  1. Extend Support Bars Symmetrically

As a conservative approach, you may like to extend the support bars symmetrically using the larger effective span length. Checking this option will extend the support bars to both spans symmetrically. "Where if Lengths Vary by Less Than (%) " : If variation in spans is more than the given value no symmetry operation is performed. The minimum and maximum permitted values are 10 and 50 respectively.
  1. Add Anchorage Length to the Steel Bar Extensions
Occasionally, you may desire to add anchorage lengths to the calculated extension lengths. You may check this field in such cases.

Steel Bar Extension Lengths

Support bar extension length multiplication factor can be set using the field provided in this section.

Steel Bars 2

Further settings that affect how the reinforcement is curtailed.


Extend Top Span Bars to End Support

If you wish to extend the top span bars of the first and last spans to the end supports, you can check this option.
  1. Don’t Use Top Span Bars
Check this option if you don’t want to add top support bars at the end support. In this case the span bars will be increased as necessary.

Extend Bottom Span Bars to End Support

If you wish to extend the bottom span bars of the first and last spans to the end supports, you can check this option.
  1. Don’t Use Bottom Span Bars
Check this option if you don’t want to add bottom span bars at the end support. In this case the span bars will be increased as necessary.

Minimum Tension Lap Factor (BS8110, CP65 & HK codes only)

With this factor set at  1.0 extended lap lengths are only introduced in some cases but not others. Some users may prefer to increase this factor to 1.4 to standardize on the use of extended lap lengths throughout.

Max. Bond Quality Coefficient  (Eurocode 2 only)

Acceptable input range  0.5 to 1.0.
In the bond stress calculation (Cl 8.4.2), the bond quality coefficient η1 can be either  1.0 or 0.7 depending on section depth. Where 0.7 is used the bond strength is reduced and laps are extended. 
Specifying a maximum of 1.0 for the Bond Quality Coefficient allows the coefficient to vary between 0.7 and 1.0 as required, hence lap lengths will vary accordingly.
Some users may prefer to specify a maximum of 0.7 (which actually fixes the coefficient at 0.7),  the effect is to standardise on the use of extended lap lengths throughout. Further conservatism can be introduced in all lap lengths by using a value as low as 0.5.

Plain Bars Bond Quality Modifier (Eurocode 2 only)

Acceptable input range 0.1 to 1.0 
In the EC2 Cl 8.4.2 bond stress calculation, there is no factor relating to the rib type of reinforcement, and no guidance on what adjustments if any should be made for plain bars. 
In ProtaStructure a factor “T " has been introduced (as in BS8110) to allow for this adjustment. It is the users responsibility to enter a suitable value for plain bars. (Until further guidance becomes available, Prota would suggest that as per BS8110  a value of 0.5 would be reasonable.)

Type-1 Bars Bond Quality Modifier (Eurocode 2 only)

Acceptable input range  0.1 to 1.0
In the EC2 Cl 8.4.2 bond stress calculation, there is no factor relating to the rib type of reinforcement, and no guidance on what adjustments if any should be made for Type 1 bars.
In ProtaStructure a factor “” has been introduced (as in BS8110) to allow for this adjustment. It is the users responsibility to enter a suitable value for Type 1 bars. (Until further guidance becomes available, Prota would suggest that as per BS8110  a value of 0.8 would be reasonable.)

Minimum Anchorage Length

The minimum anchorage length as a multiple of bar diameter can be controlled with this setting.

Bob Control

These settings affect how the bobs are controlled.


Min. Steel Bob Length Control

Using the fields provided in this frame you can control the bobs for top and bottom steel. As an example, if you have 25 diameter as top steel minimum bob length, then when a value less than this is required, then 25 diameter length bob will be provided automatically.



Properties of Bob
Usually bottom bars of cantilever beams are not bent. You can force the program to provide bobs for these bars by checking "Bend Bottom Bars of Cantilever Beams" field.

Draw Bobs for Cantilever Bottom Bars

Generally, cantilever bottom bars are not bent. If you prefer to make bobs to the bottom bars at the free end of the cantilevers, you can check this option.

If Bob Length is greater than Beam Depth

You can control the action to be assumed when the length of bob is greater than the depth of the beam.

When “Bend Top Bobs Back into Beam ” option is used, the bars will be truncated. In this case, care must be taken to check the position and dimensions of the lower columns. Alternatively, “Extend Top Bobs into Columns ” option is used in order to extend these bobs to their actual lengths. In this case, care must be taken to check the position and dimensions of the lower columns.

Detail Drawings

General


Drawings Scale

This field contains the entry for the beam detail drawing scale. You may take a selection among the available scale options.

Min. Wall Length

Curtailment of the bars extended into the columns and walls are treated differently. If you need that short walls to be considered to act like columns, you can indicate the wall length limit in this field.

Shows Bar Marks

Bar marks are determined and included with the bar label text if this option is set. Note that, any other process that uses the bar marks will not be performed if this options is not checked.

Display Axis Labels/ Balloon

By default, axis labels and circles at beam supports are drawn. You can uncheck this option to suppress these labels.

Draw Axis Labels Above Everything

If this options is checked, axis labels will be extended so that they will be above all other drawing entities.

Display Slab Lines in Beam Elevation

These set of options control the display of slab lines in the elevation view of the beams. If you check "Both"  option, the slab and beam lines in front and back will be drawn. Note that there are two different layer entries that will allow you to set the color and line type properties of these lines separately. 

Beams

This tab relates to detailing presentation options.


Beam Label List

A list of beams in the sheet is generated during the preparation of the detail drawings. You can uncheck this option to suppress the creation of this list.

Use Beam Insertion Axes as Beam Label

You can check this option if you want to use the insertion axes as being printed instead of the beam labels.

By default, beam labels are printed above the beam elevations. You can check this option if you want to have labels to be printed below the beam elevation.
  1. Underline Beam Labels
Beam label and section size texts will be underlined in the beam detail drawings if this option is checked.

Display Beam Reference Levels in Details

This option allows the reference level of the beams to be displayed in the details. The reference level can be adjusted via the Building > Edit Storey form. This option is not valid for inclined beams.

Short Span Max. Length

The limit below which a beam will be considered as short can be controlled with this setting.  Such beams will be detailed with continuous top and bottom reinforcement which will then be merged to reinforcement in adjacent spans.

Sections

This tab relates to detailing presentation options.


Beam Section Control

The set of options located in this group controls the section quantity in a beam axis. Available settings are:
  1. No Sections: No sections will be included in the beam details if this option is selected.
  2. Different Beams: Sections will be drawn only when a beam with different section dimensions is encountered in a particular beam axis.
  3. All Beams: Section of all beams will be drawn if this option is selected.

Number of Sections

Options in this group control the number of sections to be provided for each beam.
  1. Span Section Only: Only section at the mid-span of the beams will be provided if this option is selected.
  2. Support and Span Sections: Three sections per beam will be provided if this option is selected.

Beam Section Labels Control

The options provided in this section allow you to control the appearance and format of the section labels.
Section label format can be set using one of the available section label formats provided (A, B, C, …), (a, b, c …) or (1, 2, 3, …).
  1. If “Re-start Section Labels in Every Sheet ” option is selected, section labels will be reset for every sheet starting from “A”, “a” or “”.
  2. If “Re-start Section Labels in Every Axis” option is selected, section labels will be reset for every axis starting from “”, “a” or “1 ”. In this case, in order to prevent repeating labels, you may like to add axis label preceding the section label by checking the option “Add Axis Label as Prefix to Section Labels”. If this option is checked, the labels will look like “(A) 1 - 1 ”, “(A) 2 - 2 ” etc.
  3. If “Re-start Section Labels in Every Beam” option is selected, section labels will be reset for every beam starting from “A ”, “” or “1 ”.
In this case, in order to prevent repeating labels, you may like to add axis label and beam label preceding the section label by checking the option “Add Beam Label as Prefix to Section Labels” as well as “Add Axis Label as Prefix to Section Labels ”. If these options are checked, the labels will look like “(A-1B25) 1 - 1”, “(A-1B25) 2 - 2” etc.


This tab relates to detailing presentation options.


Re-plot the Bars below the Beam

If you wish to plot the steel bars below the beam elevation to have all segments lengths displayed properly you can check this option.

Annotate Steel Bars in Beam

If you wish to put steel bar quantity, diameter and barmark information to the bars drawn inside the beam elevation, you can check this option.

Annotate Bars in Beam Sections

If you wish to put steel bar quantity, diameter and barmark information to the beam sections, you can check this option.
  1. Use IStructE Style Annotation
If this option is checked section bars are annotated according to the IStructE Style. Generally, this style may be preferable if there are too many elements to annotate in the sections.

Shift Outer Layer Bars to Enhance Display

Sometimes it is useful to plot the bars shifted (although they are in the 1st layer), to enhance the display. You can check this option to shift the bars along vertical axis.

Layer information (such as T1 for Top 1st layer bars) will be printed in bar label text if this option is checked.

Display Kinks in Detail

If this option is checked, kinks will be displayed in the beam elevation drawings to mark the ends of the steel bars.

Apply Cranks to Steel Bars

If this option is checked, cranks will be applied to the detailed drawings of steel bars.

Link lines may be drawn extended further than the top and bottom bars by half bar size + link size to enhance the beam elevation display if this option is checked.

By default, total number of links is calculated and printed with the link labels for each beam. You can suppress the printing of total link quantity text by removing the checkmark of this option.

By default, total number of links arms is printed with the link labels for each beam. You can suppress the printing of number of link arms text by removing the checkmark of this option.

This option controls the appearance of the link labels with respect to the annotation lines drawn showing the extent of the link group. If “Draw Link Labels Inline ” option is checked, then the annotation line is cut in the middle and the label is printed in the middle of this line. Otherwise, an annotation line is drawn between the extents of the link group and the labels are printed above the line.
  1. Display Additional Link Lines
This option allows the spacing of the links to be expressed graphically.

By default, annotations of links are printed below the beam elevations. You can check this option if you want to have link annotations to be printed inside the beam elevation.

When “Print Link Labels Inside the Beam ” option is checked, this field controls the distance that the link annotation line is positioned from bottom edge of the beam. The value entered in this field is a multiplier applied to the beam section height.

This tab relates to detailing presentation options.

The program adds appropriate side bars based on the requirements of the active concrete codes for deep beams. Selecting "Along h " option will place the side bars equally spaced along the height of the beam, whereas "Along 2/3 h " option will place them equally spaced along the bottom 2/3 portion of the section.

Display Only a Single Side Bar in Detail

This option allows only a single indicative side bar to be shown, regardless of the total no. of side bars required. The purpose is to avoid too many elements in the final drawings, resulting in more legible output.

Dimensioning

This tab relates to detailing presentation options.


Dimension Steel Bar Lap Lengths (Top & Bottom)

This parameter controls the dimensioning of the laps of the straight bars. This option is quite useful when "Re-plot the Bars below the Beam" option is not checked.

Dimension 2nd Span Bars

This option allows the proper dimension of the second bottom span bars, whether it is in the first or second layer.

Dimension Steel Bar Anchorage Lengths (Top & Bottom)

This parameter controls the dimensioning of the support bar extensions. This option is quite useful when “Re-plot the Bars Below the Beam” option is not checked.

This parameter controls the dimensioning of the length of the beam confinement zone.

By default, dimensions for the first link to left support face and last link to the right support face are drawn for each beam. You can suppress these dimensions by removing the checkmark of this option.

Dimension Axes

By default, axis to axis dimensions is created for each beam. You can suppress these dimensions by removing the checkmark of this option.
  1. Draw Axis Dimensions Above Detail
By default, axis dimensions are located below the beam elevation drawing. You can move the axis dimensions to above the beam elevation by checking this option.

Dimension Support Columns and Clear Spans

By default, support columns and clear span dimensioning is created for each beam. You can suppress these dimensions by removing the checkmark of this option.

Dimension Beam Section

Beam sections will be dimensioned if this option is checked.
  1. Dimension Slabs in Beam Sections
Slab depths in beam section drawings will be dimensioned if this option is checked. Note that, this option will be inactive if “Dimension Beam Section” option is not checked.

Dimension 2nd Span Bars

2nd Span Bars will be dimensioned if this options is checked.

Dimension BOBs

This option is to allow users to choose to include BOBs in dimension.

Detailing

This tab relates to detailing presentation options.


Number of Beam Elevations per Insertion Row

Users can input desired number of beam elevations per insertion row in this field. 

Horizontal/ Vertical Spacing Between Elevations/ Distance to Sheet Edge

Users can input desired number for horizontal spacing and vertical spacing between beam elevations, also desired distance of beam details elevation between sheet edge.

Valid Truncation Width/ Min. Truncation Width/ Repeat Previous Span in Cropped Piece

This field contains three options for users to choose for valid truncation width:
  1. Don't Truncate
  2. Truncate From Sheet Border
  3. Truncate The Closest Axes from Sheet Border
This field requires users to input the minimum truncation width. Users may repeat previous span in cropped piece by checking that option.



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